Increased consumption of dairy foods and protein during a diet and exercise programme promotes favourable body composition

 

Weight loss can have substantial health benefits for overweight or obese people. However, the ratio of fat : lean tissue may be more important.

 

Scientific Summary:

 

How daily exercise and a hypoenergetic diet varying in protein and calcium content from dairy foods affects the body composition in healthy, premenopausal, overweight/obese women?

One study randomized patients into 3 diets differing in the quantity of total dietary protein and dairy food-source protein consumed: high protein, high dairy (HPHD = 30% Prot, 15% Dairy); adequate protein, medium dairy (APMD = 15% Prot, 7,5% Dairy); adequate protein, low dairy (APLD = 15% Prot, 2% Dairy). Participants followed the diet and exercise programme for 16 weeks.

At the end of the intervention, all groups lost body weight and fat. However, fat loss was greater in the HPHD group than in the APMD and APLD groups. Moreover, the reduction in fat in all groups was correlated with intakes of calcium and protein. On the other hand, the HPHD group gained lean tissue with a greater increase than the APMD group, which maintained lean mass and the APLD group, which lost lean mass.

Therefore, diet and exercise-induced weight loss with higher protein and increased dairy product intakes promotes more favourable body composition changes in women characterized by greater total and visceral fat loss and lean mass gain.

 

Executive Summary:

 

One study randomized patients into 3 diets differing in the quantity of total dietary protein and dairy food-source protein consumed while following an exercise program for 16 weeks.

Results demonstrated that fat loss was greater in the high protein high diary group and the reduction in fat in all groups was correlated with intakes of calcium and protein. The high protein high dairy group also gain lean tissue with greater increase than the other groups.

 

Josse, A.R.; Atkinson, S.A.; Tarnopolsky, M.A.; Philips, S.M., 2008. Increased consumption of dairy foods and protein during Diet- and Exercise-induced weight loss promotes fat mass loss and lean mass gain in overweight and obese premenopausal women. J. Nutr. 141, 1626-1634.  Accessible from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21775530

Effects of a popular exercise and weight loss program on weight loss, body composition, energy expenditure and health in obese women

 

Replacing dietary carbohydrate with protein as a potential strategy to improve health and promote weight loss.

 

Scientific Summary:

One-hundred and sixty-one sedentary, obese, female participants were recruited to participate in a study during 14 weeks with 2 main objectives: 1) to examine the efficacy of replacing dietary carbohydrate with protein while completing a weekly resistance-based circuit exercise program and 2) to determine the safety and efficacy of following the Curves fitness and weight loss program over a prolonged period.

Results of this study indicate that combining a diet that restricts caloric intake in combination with a resistance-based circuit exercise program stimulates the greatest amount of weight loss and improvements in measures of body composition. Greater improvements in waist circumference and body composition occurred when carbohydrate was replaced with protein.

 

Executive Summary:

This study assessed the efficacy of replacing carbohydrates with protein while completing a weekly exercise program; it also determined the safety and efficacy of a popular fitness weight loss program over a prolonged period.

Results show that a restriction of calories combined with an exercise program stimulates the greatest amount of weight loss. The groups that replaced carbohydrates with protein had the greatest improvements in waist circumference and body composition.

 

Kerksick, C.; Thomas, A.; Campbell, B.; Taylor, L.; Wilborn, C.; Marcello, B.; Roberts, M.; Pfau, E.; Grimstvedt, M.; Opusunju, J.; Magrans-Courtney, T.; Rasmussen, C.; Wilson, R. and Kreider, R.B., 2009. Effects of a popular exercise and weight loss program on weight loss, body composition, energy expenditure and health in obese women. Nutr. Metab. (Lond.). 6, 23. DOI:10.1186/1743-7075-6-23   Accessible from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19442301

A carbohydrate-restricted diet during resistance training promotes more favourable changes in body composition and markers of health in obese women with and without insulin resistance

 

Ingesting a higher proportion of dietary protein as part of a weight loss program can better regulate blood glucose and insulin levels.

 

Scientific Summary:

Obesity has been associated with increased risk of hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia and liver disease. This study’s purpose is to show if a carbohydrate-restricted diet is more efficient than a higher-carbohydrate diet when following a resistance weight loss program in obese women.

Two-hundred women were randomly assigned to follow a high carbohydrate or a high protein diet for 10 weeks while participating in a supervised circuit-style resistance training program. Participants recorded all food and fluid intake on dietary record forms for 4 days (3 during the week and 1 during the weekend) at weeks 0, 2 and 10 of the study.

Results show that an energy-restricted diet during exercise training program can promote greater weight loss, fat loss, and improvements in markers of health than following a high carbohydrate diet plan. Participants following the high protein, energy restricted diet experienced greater weight loss, fat loss, reductions in serum blood glucose and decreases in serum leptin levels than those following the high carbohydrate diet. These findings support contentions that sedentary obese women with higher blood glucose and insulin levels may gain greater benefit from following a resistance-based exercise program along with a high protein, energy-restricted diet.

 

Executive Summary:

Two-hundred women were randomly assigned to follow either a high carbohydrate or a high protein diet for 10 weeks while participating in a supervised circuit-style resistance training program.

Results show that participants following the high protein, energy restricted diet experienced greater weight loss, fat loss, reductions in serum blood glucose and decreases in serum leptin levels than those following the high carbohydrate diet.

 

Kreider, R.B.; Rasmussen, C.; Kerksick, C.M.; Wilborn, C.; Taylor, L.T.; Campbell, B.; Magrans-Courtney, T.; Fogt, D.; Ferreira, M.; Li, R.; Galbreath, M.; Iosia, M.; Cooke, M.; Serra, M.; Gutierrez, J.; Byrd, M.; Kresta, J.Y.; Simbo, S.; Oliver, J. and Greenwood, M., 2011. A carbohydrate-restricted diet during resistance training promotes more favorable changes in body composition and markers of health in obese women with and without insulin resistance. Phys. Sportsmed. 39, 27-40.  Accessible from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21673483

A randomized trial of a hypocaloric high-protein diet, with and without exercise, on weight loss, fitness, and markers of the Metabolic Syndrome in overweight and obese women.

 

Combination of exercise and a hypocaloric high-protein diet could lead to substantial improvements in cardiovascular risk factors and increased weight loss.

 

Scientific Summary:

Sixty overweight and obese adult female volunteers were recruited for a 12-week diet and exercise study. Subjects were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 hypocaloric treatment groups: control diet; control diet with exercise; high-protein diet; high-protein diet with exercise. Participants completed daily exercise and food diaries for all 12 weeks.

Women following the high-protein diet were instructed to attain intake of 1g protein:1g carbohydrate and target fat intake <30%; groups with control diets were instructed to consume 1g protein:3g of carbohydrate.

Subjects who participated in exercise groups had a supervised circuit-training program 3d/week.

Results show that women lost significantly more weight in the high-protein diet group than the control group. All groups presented a decrease in body mass, lean mass, waist circumference and systolic blood pressure. Although all the diet groups experienced weight loss and improvements in body composition, only the exercising groups had improved fitness.

 

Executive Summary:

Sixty overweight and obese adult women were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 hypocaloric treatments while following a 12-week exercise program.

All groups presented a decrease in body mass, lean mass, waist circumference and systolic blood pressure but subjects lost significantly more weight in the high-protein diet group than the control group.

 

Meckling, K.A. and Sherfey, R., 2007. A randomized trial of a hypocaloric high-protein diet, with and without exercise, on weight loss, fitness, and markers of the Metabolic Syndrome in overweight and obese women. Appl. Physiol. Nutr. Metab. 32, 743-752.   Accessible from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21689421

The effects of a higher protein intake during energy restriction on changes in body composition and physical function in older women.

 

Older adults consuming greater amounts of protein are less likely to lose lean mass over time and have a lower risk of incident frailty.

 

Scientific Summary:

Older women are at great risk of falls and physical disability as they have greater adiposity, less lean mass, lower muscle quality and poorer balance and gait than men of similar age.

This study aims to assess the effect of a higher protein, lower carbohydrate intake during intentional weight loss on lean soft tissue, muscle, physical function and related functional muscle quality indices compared with an isocaloric conventional higher carbohydrate, lower protein intake in healthy older overweight/obese women.

Thirty-one women followed either a high protein diet or a high carbohydrate diet for 6 months. The protein group received a supplement of 50g/day of 90% whey protein while the carb group received 50g/day of maltodextrin. Both groups had to exercise 2 to 3 times a week and the exercise consisted in 20-30 minutes of low to moderate intensity walking on an indoor track plus 20 minutes of flexibility exercises.

Results show that a high protein intake during weight loss, compared to a traditional higher carbohydrate diet can help maintain muscle relative to changes in adiposity.

 

Executive Summary:

Thirty-one women followed a high protein diet or a high carbohydrate diet for 6 months, receiving either a supplement of whey protein or maltodextrin, respectively, while exercising 2 to 3 times a week.

Results show that a high protein intake during weight loss, compared to a higher carbohydrate diet can help maintain muscle relative to changes in adiposity.

 

Mojtahedi, M.C.; Thorpe, M.P.; Karampinos, D.C.; Johnson, C.L.; Layman, D.K.; Georgiadis, J.G. and Evans, E.M., 2011. The effects of a higher protein intake during energy restriction on changes in body composition and physical function in older women. J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. 66A, 1218-1225.   Accessible from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21798863

High-protein diet with resistance exercise training may be the key

 

A study shows that a high-protein diet with resistance training improve weight loss and body composition in overweight and obese patients with type 2 diabetes.

 

Scientific Summary:

Overweight and obese adults with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to two low-fat energy-restricted diets differing in the carbohydrate : protein : fat ratio. The diet was complemented with or without supervised resistance training (RT) 3 days a week for 16 weeks. Changes in weight loss, body composition and cardiometabolic risk were assessed.

The results showed overall improvements in glycemic control and cardiovascular risk markers. However, an energy-restricted high-protein diet combined with RT achieved greater weight loss and more favourable changes in body composition.

 

 

Executive Summary:

Overweight and obese adults with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to two low-fat energy-restricted diets complemented with or without supervised training 3 days a week for 16 weeks.

Results showed that a high-protein diet combined with training achieved greater weight loss and more favourable changes in body composition.

 

Wycherley, T.P.; Noakes, M.; Clifton, PM.; Cleanthousc X.; Keogh, J.B.; Brinkworth, G.D., 2010. A high-protein diet with resistance exercise training improves weight loss and body composition in overweight and obese patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 33(5):969-976     Accessible from:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20150293

The amount of protein in diets is important for weight and metabolic syndrome management

 

Slimming diets with a 1:2 protein:carbohydrate ratio promote improvements in weight and metabolic syndrome markers when combined with exercise.

 

Scientific Summary:

The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a combination of medical disorders such as high blood fat, high blood pressure and overweight that, when occurring together, increase the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and diabetes.

A Canadian study investigated the differences in the effectiveness on weight loss and MetS markers in overweight and obese women between three low-fat, hypo-energetic diets differing in the protein:carbohydrate ratio: low protein (LP=1:4 g), normal protein (NP=1:2 g) and high protein (HP=1:1 g). Subjects followed one of the three diets and participated in an exercise program (60min three times/week) for 12 weeks.

All groups had similar improvements in body weight, insulin sensitivity, lipid profile, blood pressure and fitness. The NP diet was easier to comply with and achieved better improvements in body fat, waist circumference and waist:hip ratio, and preservation of lean mass compared with the other two diets. This may also be superior in reducing long-term chronic disease risk in overweight-obese population.

 

Executive Summary:

A study investigated the differences in the effectiveness on weight loss and metabolic syndrome markers in overweight and obese women between three low-fat, low-energy diets following an exercise program 3 times a week for 12 weeks.

The normal protein diet was easier to comply with and achieved better improvements in body fat, waist circumference and waist:hip ratio, and preservation of lean mass compared with the other two diets.

 

Campbell, D.D. and Meckling, K.A., 2012. Effect of the protein:carbohydrate ratio in hypoenergetic diets on metabolic syndrome risk factors in exercising overweight and obese women. Br. J. Nutr. 108, 1658-1671.    Accessible from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22243943